el Zorro Colorado Alpacas
Presents the --- Camelid Owners Page ---

A collection of
--- Medical Information ---
for Alpacas, Llamas and all Camelids
Updated
Note: Buy C. Norm Evans, DVM Field Manual

DEATH CAMAS
There has been several alpacas that have died in Colorado and Wyoming after eating Death Camas. Print this page in color then take an early spring walk in your pasture in the early spring with a bucket and a shovel !!
DISCLAIMER:
THE STATEMENTS PRESENTED ON THIS SITE REGARDING THE USE OF MEDICATIONS, HERBS, PROCEDURES, SUPPLEMENTS AND FORMULAS HAVE NOT NECESSARILY BEEN EVALUATED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION OR THE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AG. WE THEREFORE MAKE NO CLAIMS TO THIS EFFECT. WE DO NOT CLAIM TO DIAGNOSE OR CURE ANY DISEASE. THE PRODUCTS REFERRED TO AND/OR OFFERED ON THIS WEB SITE ARE NOT INTENDED TO DIAGNOSE, TREAT, CURE OR PREVENT ANY DISEASE. THE INFORMATION PROVIDED HERE IS FOR EDUCATIONAL PURPOSES ONLY.
THIS DOES NOT CONSTITUTE MEDICAL OR PROFESSIONAL ADVICE. THE INFORMATION PROVIDED ABOUT PROCEDURES AND THE PRODUCTS ON THIS SITE IS NOT INTENDED TO PROMOTE ANY DIRECT OR IMPLIED HEALTH CLAIMS. ANY PERSON MAKING THE DECISION TO ACT UPON THIS INFORMATION IS RESPONSIBLE FOR INVESTIGATING AND UNDERSTANDING THE EFFECTS OF THEIR OWN ACTIONS.
INDEX

ANTIBIOTICS - See Drug Doses

BREEDING
spacePregancy Testing
spaceUsing The Alpaca Estrus Cycle
spaceBreed Record/Birth Calendar(.xls)
space
Can't eliminate a retained CL?

DEWORMING - Anthelmintics - NEWParasites - Fungi
spaceFecal Testing
spaceMeningeal Worm
spaceDeworming NEW
spacePanacur
spacespacePanacur Liquid
spaceStrongid
spaceDectomax (doramectin)
spaceDiatomaceous Earth (DE)
spaceIvermectin NEW
spaceLice
spaceEar Ticks
spaceMange and Munge
spaceWhip and Nematodirus worm
spaceCryptococcus gattii

MISCELLANEOUS
spaceEye and steroids
spaceEye Washing
spaceDiarrhea
spaceChoking
spaceDehydration - checking for
spaceApple Cider Vinegar
spaceGiving Shots
spaceDrugs/Vaccines to Avoid
spacePolioencephalomalacia
NEW  Abscess
 

NEONATES and BIRTHING
spaceWeaning Crias
spaceNavel Treatment - at birth
spaceRickets - Vitamin D (Supplement
spacespacefor neonates)
spaceBirthing
spaceProlapse Uterus
spaceIgG Testing
spaceDiscolored Vulva

NUTRITION
spaceMinerals
spaceGrass Hay
spacespaceHay Testing
spaceGrain Ration
spaceCalf Manna
spaceEquine Senior
spaceBentonite, use of in feed


PARASITES
spaceFlies, Ticks and Ear Ticks

POISONOUS PLANTS
spaceDeath Camas
spacePoison Ivy, Oak & Sumac
spaceEXCELLENT Links

SKIN DISORDERS
spaceMange and Munge
spaceLice

VACCINATIONS
space C D & T

VIRUS(es)
spaceWest Nile (WNV)
spaceHantavirus (Pulmonary
spacespaceSyndrome) (HPS)
spaceVesicular Stomatitis (VSV)
spaceFoot and Mouth (FMD)
spaceBovine Viral Diarrhea (BVDV)
spaceRabies (and Alpacas)
spaceEquine Herpesvirus (EHV-1)

space
Google Searches
spaceBovine Coronavirus
spaceHerpesviruses (aka 'the snots')spacespaceAdenovirus Virus
spaceBluetongue virus (Google)
spacespacespaceWestern/Western Equine
spaceEncephalitis (E/WEE)
spaceCerebellar Abiotrophy
spacePigeon fever (aka, pigeon breast,
spacebreastbone fever, dryland
spacedistemper, dryland strangles, false
spacestrangles, false distemper)

USE OF HERBICIDES

Use of 2,4-D on pastures and hay.

NATURAL REMEDIES

NEWMilk composition comparisons

     
BREEDING

Pregnancy Testing
Used to determine if a female is pregnant...
Send a small vial of blood with alpaca name(s) on it along with your:
Name
Address
Telephone
Fax number or email

Go to the website for the forms and more information.

What kind of test you want done (Progesterone) and the species of alpaca - Llama or Alpaca and
$9.00 (in 2011) per test to:
Mel Hoskin
M & M VETERINARY LABORATORY
13615 Wabash Rd.
Milan, MI 48160-9293
(734) 439-2698
(734) 439-3949 fax
Put the vial and paperwork in a small bubble-wrap envelope or a small box if more than one. Make sure you put the name of the alpaca(s) on the vial(s). No ice pack is required to mail... Use the red top blood tube.
They don't always process tests on weekends, although I have had them send results on a Saturday.
Ask Mel to fax or e-mail back the results. You should have it in 2-3 days
If you send it via Priority Mail, you may get results a day sooner.
Results above 1.00 are generally an indication the female is pregnant. Those below 1.0 indicate she is not pregnant. Results near 1.0 = retest.
Generally you're going to find the tests in the 3.0-6.0 range if she is pregnant.
Mel and his crew also do other tests, contact him or visit the website for further information.

Ultra Sound
This is a much better choice in determining if a female is pregnant.
It's a well known fact that a CL (Corpus luteum) can be retained from a menstrual cycle. And although it is not the product of a fetus, it continues to produce progestrone as if she was pregnant.
An experienced operator of a UltraSound Machine can see the retained CL.

Can't eliminate a retained CL?
Had that problem.. Try this:
(via Dr. Tim Thompson, DVM, summer 2011)

Give 2cc GnRh  (IM)

Starting the next day give 1/2cc progesterone every other day (QOD) and there after for 2 full weeks - SubQ .

Continue the progesterone for 2 weeks every other day (that's 7 - 1/2 cc shots = 3.5cc total)
At the end of two weeks give 2  - 1/2cc of Estrumate 2 days in a row.
5 days after the second injection, put her with a male.. she should sit.
If not.. pray!

DEWORMING - Anthelmintics - Parasites - Fungi

General:

There has been major developments recently on the dosage and rotating dewormers.

Do Not rotate dewormers. Instead do fecal test and see what (if any) worms you have then treat them accordingly.

20% of the alpacas produce 80% of the parasite eggs. These are usually crias, <5 months old.

And because of that, do not do herd wide deworming. It's a waste of dewormer, your time and it doesn't do (most of) the camelid any good either.

Climate change has effected the process of a lot of things in nature and one of them (at least here in Colorado) is dry weather, i.e. no moisture. No moisture = less parasites. Skip the dewormers

 

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Strongid-C (Pyrantel) Granular available. Very safe. Feed Strongid™(1X) at .5 ounces/125 pounds. Feed 2X Strongid™ at .5 ounces/250 pounds.. (Serves no purpose to double dose.) To help... give alpacas 1/2 cup of 1X formula, llamas give full cup.. 2X formula = 1/4 cup to Alpacas, 1/2 cup for Llamas....
Dosage chart for Strongid.
Lice
Pyrethrum products are best. (keep alpaca dry for 24 hours after treatment.)
If you have regular problems - Delouse annually around Thanksgiving (Late November).
Can also use Sevin Garden Dust. It's ok, just keep it out of the eyes.
Read the labels.

IVERMECTIN
Use the Ivermectin Plus (as per Dr. David Anderson, DVM) for cattle and administer 1cc/110 lbs (not very much) per adult alpaca subcutaneously, not orallyWell that was in 2003... But in 2013 things have changed!

Orally DOES work! They actually make a drench now.. and it is ok for Camelids!

Although the worming pastes such as Strongid and Panacur do take care of a lot of  bugs, they only attack them in the gut.

Ivermectin gets them 'everywhere' they live in the body, like skin mites.

There are many doses to give alpacas and llamas (You will see more than one on this page) , I believe the most common is 1cc per 110 pounds. I wouldn't give any alpaca more than 1 1/2 cc. Llamas at 400 pounds about 3cc. Subq (under the skin)
In the Summer 2000 issue of Alpacas® Magazine you will find on page 48, Dr. Kitzel A. Farrah, D.V.M. (a well respected camelid vet in SW Colorado) indicated one should administer Ivomectin at 1cc for every 75 pounds of body weight). It's an interesting article, read it.
This stuff can be overdosed, so make sure what you are giving and the amount, and pull out the syring just a bit and look for red (blood) before you inject. Don't inject directly into blood stream.
This is good to rid an alpaca of lice, ticks, mites, heck just about everything, except Whip worm and a few others.
Ivomec (Ivermectin 1cc / 70-110lb)
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Panacur™ (fenbendazole) Panacur™ (in all forms) should be double the labeled dose for camelids - This kills tapeworms at that dose.
Some folks give this for three consecutive days once a year.
(Safeguard™ is the pellet form). (Although it is just as good and safe as the granular, llamas and alpacas won't eat it. At least I can't get them to eat it.)
Granular form, feed 10 Mg / Lb rate.
Each blue packet contains 5.2g or 5200Mg
I have a chart to determine dosages for the Granules
Dectomax (doramectin) 1cc/70-100lbs - SubQ
This is only in a liquid form for now, you must inject it.
Dr. Pugh, DVM (date: Summer '98 at AOBA Conf.) seminar talked about Dectomax and said it was better and safer and longer lasting than Ivomectin. Was tested on Dairy Cows. He says is real safe. I have noticed many camelid vets recommend this, now.
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Panacur Liquid, Use the 20% solution (Oral)
The dose for this is one ml/20 lbs of alpaca (100 lb alpaca gets 5
ml). This is the equivalent of the 20 mg/kg dose that Dr. Norm
Evans suggests. I bet it is a lot cheaper too as the 10% paste gets
very pricey when you have to worm all animals for three consecutive
days (or longer). YOU WILL NEED A DVM PRESCRIPTION FOR THIS.
Comes in a large amount. Share with your friends and other alpaca owners as it will expire before you use it all up!
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Abscess:

The most noticable and common abscesses are of the jaw.

Older camelids: This is usually caused by a tooth abscess. To determine if that is the case, put your finger(s) (carefully) into the mouth between the cheek and the gum where the abscess is. What do you feel? Swelling? Nothing? or can't tell.  If that is difficult to do.. feel outside the jaw above the abscess.

It's best if you can find out if this is related to the teeth before you visit a vet.

If it is a tooth problem...or at least as best you can tell. You are going to have to see a vet to take care of it. Around here North-Central Colorado front range, I'd recommend Tim Thompson, DVM, in Platteville, CO. Around here, he is the expert.

Young Camelids:

If it is not part of a tooth, more than likely can handle the isssue by yourself, at least initially.

  1. Get yourself a wet warm/hot clean rag and hold it to the abscess area. Do this until it softens up. Begin moving and breaking the abscess.
    When you do you will get a lot of white goo coming out.. This is white blood cells and are there to attack the infection.
  2. Clean it out, you should see some 'raw' red color in the abscess hole. You can use gauze and saline solution to help you. Avoid using alcohol!
  3. When it's clean.. squirt some betadyne (or most any good anti-bacteria solution) in there to coat the area good.  Avoid using alcohol!
  4. Give a pencillin shot at 5cc/100 lbs, SubQ.

Repeat 1 through 4 everyday for 5-7 days.
Towards the 4th day you should start seeing signficant improvement. The abscess 'hole' should start filling in and become less deep. And producing less and less white blood cells. At this point you can reduce steps 1-4 perhaps every other or every third day. Until it completely heals up.  
There may be some excess skin around the abscess and you think you might trim that up.. But don't.. If you feel you absolutely need to trim it up.... go see your vet.

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Fecal testing for worm (eggs in stool):
Should do at least once per year, (can send pellets to local vet for processing)
OR....
Dissolve Epson Salts in test tube. cut/crush up pellet(s) and put in a special solution.
Spin down...or Shake... eggs will rise to top.
Important to take samples from many places (many alpacas). Need a 40+ power microscope, recommend a dual lense to see eggs. (You might want to check out the digital microscopes instead of the traditional units. They are less expensive and much easier to use.)  The parasites are little round clear, almost looks like bubbles on the plate.
You can purchase a fecal kit from the Vet supply houses that will do 50 tests or so.
If you would like to have parasite identification done, you can gather a fecal sample and take it to you local vet.
Look for your DIY fecal testing supplies here.
Parasite research 'words of wisdom' for whip worms, Nematodirus worms and Meningeal Worms provided by Dr. Anderson of Ohio State University (now in Kansas). In e-mail on Alpaca Chat list dated January, 2000

This analysis is accurate only for the sample submitted. Make sure the sample you submit is representative of the feedstuff being tested.
Don’t use any oil based (injectable) vaccines on camelids. You can use mineral oil to help in constipation, dehydration, etc., but it is not injected.
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Cryptococcus gattii
A potentially deadly strain of fungus is spreading among animals and people in the northwestern United States and the Canadian province of British Columbia. The airborne fungus, called Cryptococcus gattii, usually only infects transplant and AIDS patients and people with otherwise compromised immune systems, but the new strain is genetically different, the researchers said.

"This novel fungus is worrisome because it appears to be a threat to otherwise healthy people," said Edmond Byrnes of Duke University in North Carolina, who led the study. "The findings presented here document that the outbreak of C. gattii in Western North America is continuing to expand throughout this temperate region," the researchers said in their report, published in the Public Library of Science journal PLoS Pathogens. "Our findings suggest further expansion into neighboring regions is likely to occur and aim to increase disease awareness in the region."

The new strain appears to be unusually deadly, with a mortality rate of about 25 percent among the 21 U.S. cases analyzed, they said. "From 1999 through 2003, the cases were largely restricted to Vancouver Island," the report reads. "Between 2003 and 2006, the outbreak expanded into neighboring mainland British Columbia and then into Washington and Oregon from 2005 to 2009. Based on this historical trajectory of expansion, the outbreak may continue to expand into the neighboring region of Northern California, and possibly further."

The spore-forming fungus can cause symptoms in people and animals two weeks or more after exposure. They include a cough that lasts for weeks, sharp chest pain, shortness of breath, headache, fever, nighttime sweats and weight loss. It has also turned up in cats, dogs, an alpaca and a sheep. Freezing can kill the fungus and climate change may be helping it spread, the researchers said.

Google it!

 
 
BENTONITE: IMPORTANT: Pyrantel should not be mixed with rations containing bentonite. (Bentonite is a soft, porous clay from volcanic ash.) Check the labels of your pellets to make sure you're not feeding Bentonite. Bentonite is used to hold together mixtures in pellets for various llama and alpaca feeds (as well as goats and sheep). Studies have been done that indicate Bentonite can aid in the production of fiber on fiber alpacas. (Do a little research on your own, climb on to Google. You'll get enough articles to keep you busy for a while.

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Immediate Ear Tick Treatment for Alpacas:
PERMETHRIN in a spray can: Catron IV®.  or PROZAP®
This is the treatment for ear ticks for alpacas recommended by the local vets. Also good for screw worms.
Pick it up at your local vet supply store, Big R, Vet Link, or at last resort a Vet (++$).
Make sure the Permethrin is 0.50% in what ever you get.

IVERMECTIN - GENERAL STATEMENT ON THIS DRUG.
Use the Ivermectin Plus (as per Dr. David Anderson, DVM) for cattle and administer 1cc/110 lbs (not very much) per adult alpaca subcutaneously, not orally.

There are many doses to give alpacas and llamas (You will see more than one on this page) , I believe the most common is 1cc per 110 pounds. I wouldn't give any alpaca more than 1 1/2 cc. Llamas at 400 pounds about 3cc. Subq (under the skin)
In the Summer 2000 issue of Alpacas® Magazine you will find on page 48, Dr. Kitzel A. Farrah, D.V.M. (a well respected camelid vet in SW Colorado) indicated one should administer Ivomectin at 1cc for every 75 pounds of body weight). It's an interesting article, read it.
This stuff can be overdosed, so make sure what you are giving and the amount, and pull out the syring just a bit and look for red (blood) before you inject. Don't inject directly into blood stream.
This is good to rid an alpaca of lice, ticks, mites, heck just about everything, except Whip worm and a few others.
Ivomec (Ivermectin 1cc / 70-110lb)
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MISCELLANEOUS
Eye and Steroids
Most all eye products contain a steroid of some type. Normally this is not a problem except steroids cause abortions in pregnant females. Yes even a few drops can do this to some females.
It is best you contact your vet for further information on this subject.

Washing the eyes:
Look, at the eye lid(s) and look for a hair or something under the eye lid. Get some saline solution (same stuff folks use to clean contact lenses) at the local store. Just Saline... nothing else in the bottle.
Squirt some into the eye and wash it out.
Occasionally the lower eye lid turns into the eye (on neonates). Put some eye ointment under the eye lid to make it flip back out. The sooner you do this the better the results.

Diarrhea
From a well respected Local camelid vet. -->> Cure for the GWAS poopies.
Kaopectate 20-30 ML four times a day
Put it in the back of the mouth so they don't taste it!
'cause if they do taste it it may come back out... then YOU will taste it!
Electrolyte water or drench
Probiotics
Should get firmer in about 48 hours

If they stop eating and/or have a temp of over 103 she's treating with Banomine and antibiotics.
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Apple Cider Vinegar
Owners use Apple Cider Vinegar for quite a few reasons:
1) It (reportedly) reduces Calcium stones in the urinary tract and kidneys.
2) It does keeps algae out of the water pale.
3) It (reportedly) promotes female crias. It is well known that females are created when the mother's body chemistry is more acid. It doesn't always work, of course, but many owners use it.
(Of course, if this sounds to good to be true, that's because it is. Some friends used it and got 13 female crias in one year. They were very excited... The next year another tried it and got 13 male crias in a row!)
Make sure you get REAL Apple Cider Vinegar and use one cap full in the water pale or tub each day or when it is refilled.
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Dehydration, Checking for
Dehydration, Checking in alpacas
By Stephen Hull, Ph.D. (off Alpaca chat list 12/12/2000)
"Dehydration is easy to assess in alpacas with loose skin and harder in those with "tighter" more adhered skin. Dogs and cats are a snap - camelids a bit harder, pigs are almost impossible.

Pull up a ~ 1/2 inch (~1 cm) fold of skin on the back of your hand. Let go and see that it immediately "flops" back. In dehydration the subcutaneous tissues are stiffer and less compliant. The skin, when pinched up, will stay up when released and resemble a "tent". This this is often called the "tenting response". Skin turgor is the proper name.

I assess skin along the spine at about the same spot I check for condition. Crias are easier to check than adults.

Get used to what "normal" is on your herd (and yourself). This technique is a very precise measure of body hydration."

Giving Shots
You should find many articles on the subject in various Camelid magazines and newsletters. One is in Summer 2000 issue of Alpacas® Magazine on Page 49. It has pictures as well. (Use Google to find more.)
Vaccinations and other shots should be given in the appropriate areas: (SubQ) Subcutaneous indicates betwen the skin and muscle. (IM) Intermuscular indicates in the muscle. Some vets and owners use alcohol to disinfect the area before giving the shots. It is my understanding that any liquid that is not wiped clean can be used to contamanate the area where you're giving the shot. Considering how difficult it would be to wipe the alcohol from such a fiber alpaca. I took allergy shots for a few years and the nurse always cleans my arms with a small alcohol wipe, but then allows for it to dry or wipes away the excess from the area where the shot is being given. The best time to give shots are right after they are sheared (real easy to find skin) and are still incapacitated on the shearing table. I believe in this case of the Alpacas (and other furry creatures) it is best if you just find some skin and quickly poke them without using alcohol. Every vet I have used has done this. It is possible to shave these critters and then use alcohol to clean the area, since you don't have the fiber to contend with. One should aspirate the syring, i.e. pull back on the plunger in the case of IM injections to see if you have contacted a blood vessel. If so pull out the needle and repeat in a different location. Doing this prevents the drug from entering the blood stream directly and causing problems.
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Polioencephalomalacia
Polioencephalomalacia (aka Polioencephalo-malacia) is a thiamine-responsive neurologic disease of ruminants.
Clinical signs of polioencephalo-malacia range from dullness, head pressing and blindness to opisthotonus, muscle tremors, twitching, hypersalivation, coma and death.

Links:
Purdue
Merck Veterinary Manual

Choking alpacas or llamas: Rub the front-left side of the neck with fist. This tends to release the blockage in neck (esophagus). alpaca will give impression that he/she is having difficulty breathing. Either breathing in or exhaling. If you have/had asthma, you know exactly what I mean!


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Drugs/Vaccines to Avoid
Don’t use any oil based (injectable) vaccines on camelids. You can use mineral oil to help in constipation, dehydration, etc., but do not inject it.
Valbazen (can cause deformities in pregnant females)
Ivermectin aka ivomectin (avoid unless you ABSOLUTELY HAVE to use it!)
Ivomectin (pour-on) --- this does not provide adequate protection for camelids.
Ivomectin shot - may be given when necessary for shows and interstate travel requirements at the rate of 1cc /110 lbs. Ivomectin will not kill tape worms, use Strongid or Panacur as stated above.
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NEONATES & BIRTHING
Navel Treatments
Dipping: Best is Novasan Teat Dip concentrate (IMPORTANT: Follow instructions to dilute). Can give 1cc penicillin shot (SubQ) instead of navel dip. (Testing shows either is ok.) If navel drips, blood. Tie dental floss around navel with knot. Remove the next day to drain out any infection material in navel. (Drain and repeat until it stops bleeding.)
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Weaning
Wean cold turkey. White blood cells come to bottom of utter when not nursing. When nursing continues neonate sucks out all white blood cells.... Causes inflammation of uterus and possible mastitis. (This is officially called the 'Utter' (other) Method... from Jerry Dunn, a well known and well respected llama owner and trainer in Golden, CO.)
Rickets & Vitamin D
First rule is to watch your alpacas. Know their personalities, quirks, how they walk. Let them out in the in the pasture, do they run, jump, play.. Or does the crias just start grazing?
Those little changes can revel problems in an animal. Those crias that are 4-7 months old are most susceptive to Rickets. Especially in the winter, late winter. The sunshine is limited due to the position of the sun, cloudy days and . Even a sunny day may be cold which will keep the crias in the barn. And most important full fleeces... all limit the sunshine and thus limit Vitamin D.... which cause Rickets.
Watch those crias. Are they walking kinda odd, not running with the other playmates? Not jumping on the back of others in play? You may have a ricktes. Have a blood test done quickly.
I've used A, D and E paste. it works fine for animals that are not recumbent. Vit. D shots and radiographs (X-Ray) may be needed for more serious situations. You'll need your vet.
Prolapse Uterus
This takes two people. What to do: Put a halter on the female and get her to sit down (kush). Give her an Ocytocin shot (double or triple the dose 2-3cc per 100lbs.) This shrinks the uterus. Whe she is kushed, pull her back legs out the back of her (while she is sitting).This relazes the muscles so you can clean and restore the uterus within her without any struggle from the female. (Works with most four legged mammals.) Actually pull the legs out to her side and them back. You may have to have somebody put very light pressure on her lower back to keep her in 'the' position. Clean off the uterus with Novasan and luke-warm water. Don't use Iodine to clean it. Push the uterus back into the female. If it comes back out you will have to stich up the area around the uterus. You may wait until the Ocytocin shot takes affect to see if it will hold it in. Use 6 small loops in the skin 3 on each side.. Don't worry about any pain they rarely feel the pain in this condition. Then lace the string through the loops like you would you shoe lace. Make sure you're not to high as to block the rectum discharge. Leave it for 1 month. It is best if you call your local vet to help out with this procedure... (needless to say!)
 
 
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IgG Testing
When to test: anytime 24 hours after birth.
CD&T vaccinate moms 45-60 days before delivery. This causes high(er) IgG in moms milk.
Can have total Protein of blood tested before IgG is determined. If Total Protein less than 4.5, then transfuse cria. Acceptable range is 4.5 to 4.7 Do test 24 hours after birth. Can purchase total protein kits (can carry around in pocket..... that small) (I don't know where, if you do contact me.) If you have a vet that says he/she can test colostrum intake using cattle, equine, swine, etc. test kits.... They're nuts!
Triple J Have your vet call Jorgensen and find out the CORRECT information! Generally you use Triple J's testing for IgG Donald Jorgensen - Triple J Farms 23404 NE 8th Street, Redmond, WA 98053 Phone: 425-868-6263 Fax: 425-868-6335 Email: DonJorgensen@msn.com Web site: http://www.kentlabs.com/
When is a test required for IgG: Well this is a big question. Test if you: 1) If you have a female that has produced cria(s) that have a problem making or having the colostrum for the crias, have the crias tested until you have determined the female no longer has the problem.... 2) If they don't get milk within the 6-10 hour period after birth 3) If you feed anything other than moms milk within 6 hours after birth.
     
NUTRITION

MINERALS
These alpacas need minerals, free choice and granular in form. On the web at: Cache La Poudre Minerals http://www.clpminerals.com
Stillwater Minerals at:
http://www.stillwaterminerals.com/

There are supplements that can be purchased and fed daily that contain the minerals needed.
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Equine Senior.
High TDN... For older alpacas and some Equine Seniorneonates. Easy to digest. (Heated sweet mix and extruded into pellet.) If they choke on pellet brand of this stuff, feed that with flaked corn if your alpacas have that problem or get the Purina brand, they seem to like it better and don't choke on it.)

Grain Ration:
Grain ration. Use during last trimester and lactation females. Can be used on low weight alpacas.
You say youiralpaca doesn't eat the rolled corn? Try cracked corn and mix your own grain ration.

Difficulty eating corn:
I know what you're saying, "They don't eat rolled corn, how the &^%$ do they eat the other ingredients in the dish and leave the rolled corn?! That's impossible for alpacas to do that.... Well, maybe for horses, pigs, goats and sheep, but not camelids. With their lips they can pick out grains of oats and leave the flat grain of corn. Why do they do this? It may be due to difficulty chewing the rolled corn since many of them that have this peculiar eating practice .... neonates and weanlings.)
Also many will leave harder feed in the dish because it hurts when they chew it, i.e. tooth problems.

Calf Manna:
Can be used on momas with limited milk. Calf Mannavery hot. high protein. Other brands are available.
Some females do not like the licorice smell/taste? of Calf Manna. Do not get small teats (or bag) on a female confused with low milk production, they can fool you. If you have a concern about this, get the cria tested for IgG after birth.
Grass hay is best.
Fresh grass pasture preferred for lactating females. Feed hay in container on ground. Keeps dust out of eyes. Alfalfa pellets are not recommended, some will choke on them. They eat about 2% of their body weight in hay per day. A 400 pound llama will eat about 8 pounds of hay per day. That equates to about 10-15% of a bale of hay weighing about 65 pounds. Hay for an 150 pound Alpaca would be about 3 pounds of hay or about half that of a llama. Hay can be fed free choice, as these critters know when to stop eating. Pile it up a week's hay ahead of time, it's ok. They may waste a lot of it walking on it to get to the newer parts of the bales (Try that with other hay consuming alpacas and you'll have dead alpacas all over the pasture!) Alfalfa is not recommended as a regular feed, it contains too much protein. It can be fed to them occasionally as a treat. There has been thoughts that too much alfalfa can cause kidney stones and calcium stones in the uninary tract. In humans you go in for surgery and your ok tomorrow, for camelids... it's life threatening.
Hay testing:
Hay Probe
For pricing, tests done, location, etc. go to: SDK Laboratories www.sdklabs.com Or call 1-877-464-0623 They are located in Hutchinson, KS
Don't look at the heavy metal analysis and see that Selenium costs $55 to do! It's really only $22... look under Individual Mineral Analyses and Individual Analyses for what you want. Be sure to use a hay probe for true forage quality testing. You can borrow one at your local County Extension Agent.
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LINKS:

ARF

Penn State University
Alpaca Assn of Australia
Wash. State University (power-pt)
RMLA
Windy Ridge Alpacas
OR Google your own
 
   
MORE LINKS:
Basics of Alpaca Nutrition
by Dr. Nancy A. Irlbeck
(From ARF)
http://www.belleauwood.com/alpacacare&nutrition.htm
http://www.windyridgealpacas.com/Mgmnt/Nutrition.htm
http://www.championalpacas.com/nutrition.htm
http://www.alpacasnz.co.nz/articles-nutrition.htm
http://www.alpacadirect.com/ResourceLinks~LinkCategory~Reference~Topic~Resources~BackFlag~1.htm
http://vbs.psu.edu/ext/resources/browse-by-species/camelid (a good one!!)
     
POISONOUS PLANTS
Poison Ivy, Oak & Sumac
Poison Ivy will not affect Camelids (the way it does humans). The real danger is when these alpacas get the Poison Ivy on their coats and you (the human) stroke that coat... Then you! have a problem.
Goats, sheep, camelids and other ruminants seem to love the stuff (to eat!). It causes no ill effects to them. (A bit hard to believe, but ask your vet.)
Like I said the real danger is when humans touch the fiber of an alpaca that has come in contact with the plant.

Ok, so you'd like to get rid of it! One of the ways is to burn it. Build a burn pile over it and set it afire. Burn it often and hot - scorch the earth with it.
You can mow it (or cut it down) often and it will eventually die as well. Avoid letting it grow until the berries appear... these are the seeds!
Then you have a bigger problem!

BEWARE: The smoke from fires, especially those that are smoldering has all the volatile oils from the Poison Ivy plants. DO NOT BREATH THE SMOKE OR FUMES FROM SUCH A FIRE - PEOPLE (AND alpacas) DIE OFTEN DUE TO THIS.
Poison Oak has a similar effect on the alpacas. Go here to see all the links.
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LINKS-LINKS-LINKS-LINKS-LINKS-LINKS

DEATH CAMAS
C - R Alpacas - A good resource! (Eastern & extreme western US)

THE BEST=Colorado State University- Guide to Poisonous Plants

USDA - Poisonous Plant by Toxic Syndrome

Mount Lehman Llamas- A nice consise 'matrix' of forage

Cornell University - Plants Poisonous to Livestock

ASPCA

Canada resource

Purdue University - A complete search list... thanks to Google - you pick!

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SKIN DISORDERS
Munge or Mange Lesions - Idiopathic Nasailperioral Hyperkeratotic Dermatosis.
Munge or Mange Lesions consist of variable degrees of heavy, adherent crusts affecting the nose area, including at times, the bridge of the nose.
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In extreme conditions it also occurs between the rear legs, the legs and ears. It can be extremly painful wilth bleeding 'fissures' in the skin.
The nasal location may be severe enough to cause obstruction. Initial treatment for mild conditions one should attempt to treat area daily with (100/0) povidone iodine scrubs and the application of 7% Povidone Iodine Surgical Scrubetincture of iodine. This may be combined with an antibiotic (e.g., penicillin, 40,000 U/kg subcutaneously, every 24 hours for 7-10 days; trimethoprim-sulfadiazine, 10 mg/kg diluted to 120/0 every 12 hours subcutaneously; ceftiofur, 1 mg/kg every 12 hours subcutaneously; or long-acting oxytetracycline, 18 mg/kg every 3 days for 15 days). The above treatment, with iodine and penicillin, is best for pregnant females. Lesions that fail to respond to antibiotic therapy(and are not pregnant) can be treated with topical glucocorticoids such as triamcinolone acetonide (Panalog, Solvay, Mendota Heights, MN), dexamethasone (Tresaderm, MSD-AGVET, Rahway, NJ), or fluocinolone (Synotic, Syntex Laboratories, Palo Alto, CA) or a more potent (and costly) preparation marketed for humans, such as clobetasol (Temovate, Glaxo, Research Triangle Park, NC). The treatment of Panalog or triamcinolone acetonide typically has almost miracle results. You will see lesions magically disappear in 1-2 days. NOTE: Many of these treatments contain a steroid such as triamcinolone acetonide and will cause pregnant females to abort crias. DO NOT USE ANY TREATMENT THAT CONTAINS STEROIDS ON PREGNANT FEMALES.
USE THE IODINE AND ANTI-BACTERIAL TREATMENT INSTEAD. (YOU WON'T FIND THIS INFORMATION IN THE BOOK)
In severe cases the base of lesions may also be injected with triamcinolone acetonide 2 mg/mL, repeated as necessary. This also has a very dramatic effect. Alternatively, oral prednisone beginning at 1 to 2 mg/kg/day can be used for 1 to 2 weeks; the dose is then halved for 1 to 2 weeks, then used every other day for 2 weeks. The glucocorticoid then is gradually tapered and discontinued.
An oral zinc supplementation (Zinpro100) is a benefit, but it does take relatively high dosages to produce a response (e.g., 2 g zinc sulfate/day or 4 g zinc methionine (Zinpro)/day.)
Treatment may be continued until remission and a couple of months beyond. Maintenance is attempted with the previously described zinc/mineral mix.
This information was provided by:
The Veterinary Clinics of North America Food Alpaca Practice Update On Llama Medicine Volume 10 Number 2 July 1994 Pages 234-5 ISSN: 0749-0720(print), 1558-4240 (Electronic) Published by W.B. Saunders Company
This Publication is out-of-print and no longer available through 'normal' sources.

Additional information is on this subject can be found on Mike Safley's site.. with pictures!... --> 'i.e., Witch's Brew'
     
     
VACCINATIONS

CD-Tetanus
C D & TAdult:
Vaccinate 45-60 days (some vets recommend 60-90 days) prior to delivery for females. May vaccinate males annually. 3cc per alpaca. SubQ
There are many ways to give neonates C.D. & T . Some vets say it does no good for the neonate until they are 8 weeks old.
Note: This is true if the dam got her shot 30-60 days before she gave birth. Some vets say until one month old I'd recommend 2cc at one week. Not much benefit for one cc of most anything.
CD&T Vacc.

Summary of Schedules for:
Neonates: 2cc at one week after birth and 2cc booster at 4 weeks old, 3cc annually thereafter. You can skip the 4 wk booster if the Mom has had her injection recently.

I recommend: If your (Pregnant) female did not have her C.D. & T shot 30-60 days before birth proceed with neonate with 2cc at one week and give the female her 3cc at this time.

If your female did get her C.D. & T. shot before birthing, you pick a schedule above you like for your cria! (Giving CD & T shots to pregnant females at 30 days or less before birth is not reccomended... don't do it.)
Use toxoid vaccine, not bactrin toxoid. Anchor or Bioceutic are best brands.Figure on 3 cc for each adult BAR VAC CD-T - Anchor 50ml $4.89 Valley Vet Supply 800-356-1005 (May not be listed in all their catalogs, but call, they have it.) It will not be in any Equine Catalogs....
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USE of HERBICIDES and Alpacas:

Source: Alpacasite, msg 2.1 on number 9193 digest July 15, 2009

by Dr. Steve Hull

"..... why it is OK to apply 2,4-D to hay fields but not grazing
pastures. There is the $64,000 question.

Recall that alpacas have padded feet and 2,4-D sticks to soils, especially clay soils. The data on the leach rate was done with composted topsoil (yup, by the herbicide manufacturers). And they say it is safe for cattle in several days.

Alpacas have a bare belly and perhaps that is where they pick it up.

Alpacas also have a very sensitive brain to anesthetic drugs (ask any vet) and perhap they are just more sensitive to the amount of 2,4-D on the ground.

Hay grows up and the residue in hay is rather small.

In summary, I think it may be the CNS sensitivity, perhaps an increased uptake through toe pads/belly and who knows what else.

The bottom line is that neither the salt nor the ester form of 2,4-D are safe for application for alpacas (or llamas) on grazing pastures."

 

 
Discolored Vulva on Neonate:  

Vulva is discolored and looks like an infection.
May appear swollen as well. Would occur right afer birth.
More than likely it is not an infection. Make she she is acting fine, nursing, playing, gaining wt., not running a temperature (>102˚) , etc.
It is usually caused by the change in hormones passed by the mom through her milk.

Condition occurs in many species.

If it doesn't get better in a few days, then 'do' something.

Dr. Signe Balch, DVM  06-20-2011

     
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NATURAL REMEDIES    
Fleas: Bath your pet in Cedar Oil Shampoo.   Then sprinkle diatomaceous earth on all carpets. Leave it for 4 days and vacuum up the fleas!  Repeat if necessary. Diatomaceous earth  can be a mild skin irritant if your skin is sensitive.  
     
That's all for now folks. More information on the drug doses page.